Organic chemistry dates back to approximately 200 years ago. Organic molecules make up the majority of the structure of all living organisms. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and other chemical compounds related to them are critical for our survival.
Chemical chemists worldwide began to conclude the Organic and Inorganic Compound differences derived from plants and animals and inorganic compounds derived from mineral resources in the late seventeenth century.
What are Organic Compounds?
Organic compounds get defined as those that contain carbon as a constituent, regardless of their state of solid, gaseous, or liquid. Organic molecules get classified using various hypotheses, including structural formulas, space-filled models, and Lewis structures.
Organic compounds are frequently identified using a mass spectrometer to analyse their mass spectra.
Organic chemistry – History
The discovery of a varied variety of chemical compounds by naturalists and scientists throughout the early nineteenth century is well documented. The researchers discovered critical differences between chemicals originating from living species and ones derived from non-living organisms in their study.
According to the findings of their research, a fundamental but inexplicable distinction between different types of chemicals was identified by chemists during this time. As a consequence of these insightful discoveries, the vital force theory of 1809 became a widely recognised concept.
Jons Berzelius was the one who introduced the concept of vitalism. The term “organic chemistry,” which refers to the study of compounds that have been obtained from biological origins, was also invented by him. If you believe in the vital force theory, a significant force—also known as a life force—can only exist in the presence of organic materials, such as the bodies of living animals and plants.
Organic compounds, according to this viewpoint, can only be produced by living cells themselves. Consequently, it was found to be challenging to synthesise such compounds in the laboratory.
The innovative synthesis procedure developed by Friedrich Wohler, a scientist who worked for many decades, invalidated this theory. Wohler demonstrated how to synthesise organic compounds in the laboratory under carefully controlled conditions, according to the journal Science.
This ‘in-vitro’ synthesis of organic compounds was a significant biochemistry discovery, and it was responsible for the establishment of the modern subject known as organic chemistry.
Previous to this discovery, organic chemistry was thought to be a discipline of chemistry that dealt with natural processes that occurred inside a living being. This point of view has now been called into question. On the other hand, Friedrich Wohler was the first to show in the early 1800s that organic molecules could be synthesised in the laboratory using a variety of minerals and non-organic constituents. This discovery continues to this day.
Cyclic compounds are distinguished from open-chain compounds. Open chain compounds are classified into two types:
- Straight-chained compounds
- Branched-chain compounds
A straight-chained molecule is the most common type of open chain chemical. Apart from being divided into two groups, cyclic chemicals are further divided into two subgroups: homocyclic and heterocyclic.
Again, homocyclic molecules are classified as alicyclic or aromatic. Alicyclic compounds are the most frequently encountered homocyclic compounds.
Organic compounds serve as an excellent example.
- Complex carbohydrates
What are Inorganic Compounds?
Chemically, inorganic compounds are those that do not contain carbon and are thus classified as such. In several ways, this definition is opposed to the one offered for organic compounds.
Carbon and hydrogen do not form stable bonds in these compounds. Inorganic compounds include salts, chemical substances, and metals. Throughout history, over 100,000 inorganic compounds have been discovered.
The study of the chemical and physical properties of various inorganic substances is referred to as inorganic chemistry. It is made up of both chemical and biological components. The vast majority of inorganic substances are composed of minerals or organic molecules that have geological origins. They are predominantly composed of metallic materials.
Inorganic compounds possess a variety of distinctive properties.
The vast majority of inorganic compounds are capable of conducting electricity. They are poor conductors of electricity when solidified but excellent conductors when liquid. Inorganic substances are poor conductors of electricity when hardened.
While all electrons are in this phase, they are entirely unrestricted in their movement. Additionally, the term ‘electricity’ refers to the exact direction of electrons.
Inorganic compounds contain a large number of ionic bonds that hold the components together. As a result, they are incredibly densely packed, have high boiling and melting points, and are highly reactive. Additionally, inorganic substances exhibit colour changeability.
Inorganic compound applications and examples
- Water is an example of something ubiquitous in our environment.
- Pesticide is an example of an inorganic chemical compound.
Organic and Inorganic Compound Differences
|Organic Compound||Inorganic Compound|
|The presence of carbons distinguishes these compounds from one another.||Carbon atoms are not present in any of these compounds.|
|It is important to note that they are very flammable and volatile substances.||They are inert and non-combustible.|
|Solids, gases, and liquids are the three types of materials that may exist.||They only exist in the solid-state structure in which they have been created.|
|Organic substances are, in the great majority of situations, insoluble in water due to their structure.||Only a few organic solvents are capable of removing them from the solution. In addition, they are soluble in water.|
|This molecule has a high concentration of carbon-hydrogen bonds.||These compounds do not have carbon-hydrogen bonds.|
|A live thing is most often the target of this phenomenon.||Inanimate items are the most common source of this substance.|
|Typical examples of such compounds are carbohydrate sugars, lipids, and so on.||Minerals show this as an illustration.|
Science of Organic and Inorganic Compound Differences, chemistry studies their synthesis and interactions with one another. Organic compounds may exist in a range of phases and are mainly constituted of carbon in their composition. Biologically derived compounds serve as the primary building blocks of all of our necessities.
As a result, even though inorganic substances do not contain carbon and only exist in solid form, they are considered organic substances. Keep these notes close at hand to ensure that you do well on tests.